Книги фракс

Алан-э-Дейл       31.08.2022 г.

Если изменения образа жизни подходят, ваш врач может порекомендовать:

более весовое упражнение

  • отказаться от курения
  • ограничение алкоголя
  • Вам также рекомендуется уменьшить ваш риск падения несколькими способами. Это означает, что ваш дом безопаснее:

избавление от броских ковриков

  • установка грейферов при необходимости
  • улучшение освещения пола ночью
  • ношение обуви, которая вряд ли проскользнет
  • Вы можете также рекомендуется работать над упражнениями с балансом.

Более агрессивное лечение обычно включает тип лекарств, называемых бисфосфонатами, такими как алендронат (Фосамакс) и ибандронат (Бонива). Длительное использование этих препаратов связано с несколькими серьезными побочными эффектами, включая переломы и ухудшение челюстной кости. Могут быть использованы другие препараты, такие как denosumab (Prolia) или золедрон (Reclast), которые вводят путем инъекции.

Эстроген-заместительная терапия для женщин и терапия тестостероном для мужчин также используются для лечения остеопороза. Обычно эти методы, связанные с гормонами, сопровождают другие методы лечения и улучшения образа жизни.

Уменьшите свою оценку. Снизите риск, чтобы снизить свою оценку.

Risk factors

For the clinical risk factors a yes or no response is asked for. If the field is left blank, then a «no» response is assumed. See also .The risk factors used are the following:

Age The model accepts ages between 40 and 90 years. If ages below or above are entered, the programme will compute probabilities at 40 and 90 year, respectively.
Sex Male or female. Enter as appropriate.
Weight This should be entered in kg.
Height This should be entered in cm.
Previous fracture A previous fracture denotes more accurately a previous fracture in adult life occurring spontaneously, or a fracture arising from trauma which, in a healthy individual, would not have resulted in a fracture. Enter yes or no (see also notes on risk factors).
Parent fractured hip This enquires for a history of hip fracture in the patient’s mother or father. Enter yes or no.
Current smoking Enter yes or no depending on whether the patient currently smokes tobacco (see also notes on risk factors).
Glucocorticoids Enter yes if the patient is currently exposed to oral glucocorticoids or has been exposed to oral glucocorticoids for more than 3 months at a dose of prednisolone of 5mg daily or more (or equivalent doses of other glucocorticoids) (see also notes on risk factors).
Rheumatoid arthritis Enter yes where the patient has a confirmed diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Otherwise enter no (see also notes on risk factors).
Secondary osteoporosis Enter yes if the patient has a disorder strongly associated with osteoporosis. These include type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, osteogenesis imperfecta in adults, untreated long-standing hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism or premature menopause (
Alcohol 3 or more units/day Enter yes if the patient takes 3 or more units of alcohol daily. A unit of alcohol varies slightly in different countries from 8-10g of alcohol. This is equivalent to a standard glass of beer (285ml), a single measure of spirits (30ml), a medium-sized glass of wine (120ml), or 1 measure of an aperitif (60ml) (see also notes on risk factors).
Bone mineral density (BMD) (BMD) Please select the make of DXA scanning equipment used and then enter the actual femoral neck BMD (in g/cm2). Alternatively, enter the T-score based on the NHANES III female reference data. In patients without a BMD test, the field should be left blank (see also notes on risk factors) (provided by Oregon Osteoporosis Center).

Что такое FRAX?

Из-за ослабляющих кости эффектов менопаузы у 1 из 2 женщин в возрасте старше 50 лет произойдет перелом, связанный с остеопорозом. Мужчины также более склонны к перелому кости по мере старения.

Чтобы помочь вам определить риск такого травмирования, врачи разработали инструмент оценки риска перелома (FRAX). Ваш показатель FRAX — это ваш риск возникновения перелома, связанного с остеопорозом, в ближайшие 10 лет.

Формула для измерения вашего риска использует такие факторы, как:

  • возраст
  • вес
  • пол
  • история курения
  • употребление алкоголя
  • история переломов

Костная минеральная плотность и FRAX

Risk factors

For the clinical risk factors a yes or no response is asked for. If the field is left blank, then a «no» response is assumed. See also .The risk factors used are the following:

Age The model accepts ages between 40 and 90 years. If ages below or above are entered, the programme will compute probabilities at 40 and 90 year, respectively.
Sex Male or female. Enter as appropriate.
Weight This should be entered in kg.
Height This should be entered in cm.
Previous fracture A previous fracture denotes more accurately a previous fracture in adult life occurring spontaneously, or a fracture arising from trauma which, in a healthy individual, would not have resulted in a fracture. Enter yes or no (see also notes on risk factors).
Parent fractured hip This enquires for a history of hip fracture in the patient’s mother or father. Enter yes or no.
Current smoking Enter yes or no depending on whether the patient currently smokes tobacco (see also notes on risk factors).
Glucocorticoids Enter yes if the patient is currently exposed to oral glucocorticoids or has been exposed to oral glucocorticoids for more than 3 months at a dose of prednisolone of 5mg daily or more (or equivalent doses of other glucocorticoids) (see also notes on risk factors).
Rheumatoid arthritis Enter yes where the patient has a confirmed diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Otherwise enter no (see also notes on risk factors).
Secondary osteoporosis Enter yes if the patient has a disorder strongly associated with osteoporosis. These include type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, osteogenesis imperfecta in adults, untreated long-standing hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism or premature menopause (
Alcohol 3 or more units/day Enter yes if the patient takes 3 or more units of alcohol daily. A unit of alcohol varies slightly in different countries from 8-10g of alcohol. This is equivalent to a standard glass of beer (285ml), a single measure of spirits (30ml), a medium-sized glass of wine (120ml), or 1 measure of an aperitif (60ml) (see also notes on risk factors).
Bone mineral density (BMD) (BMD) Please select the make of DXA scanning equipment used and then enter the actual femoral neck BMD (in g/cm2). Alternatively, enter the T-score based on the NHANES III female reference data. In patients without a BMD test, the field should be left blank (see also notes on risk factors) (provided by Oregon Osteoporosis Center).

Troubleshooting

To invert the tilt steering motion:

  1. Open the Settings app
  2. Select Frax or Frax HD
  3. Toggle Invert Tilt Navigation

Sometimes the gyroscope within the device can stop responding needs to be recalibrated or reset. The easiest way to do this is to press and hold the power button to completely shut down the device, wait a few seconds and then turn it back on again.

As you zoom into the fractal the math requires smaller and smaller numbers to resolve the fractal shape. Eventually the required numbers become smaller than the ‘double float’ precision limit supported by iOS. At this point rounding errors become significant and the fractal shape starts breaking apart (mathematically there is no limit to how deep you can zoom!)

We have set the zoom limit to be just before this happens so you should still see a nice clean image.
However, even with the zoom limit you have a depth range of more than a trillion to one!

The hyperzoom function is triggered with a three finger tap.
It’s a great way to gracefully zoom in and out of the fractal based on your current position.

  1. Open the Settings app
  2. Select Frax or Frax HD
  3. Drag the Hyperzoom Speed slider.
    Left is slower, right is faster.

When you zoom in it constantly recomputes the entire fractal, as well as all the textures and the lighting and such, which is a very intricate dance between the CPU and GPU, pushing the device to extreme limits. Frax may well be one of the most processor intensive apps for iOS 🙂

That such huge effort requires juice goes without saying, we can hardly apologize for that, really 🙂
It would be a bit like building a Formula 1 race car… and then complain about bad mileage.

That said, we do conserve power when possible: if you are not animating or rendering it will drop to the standard idling state.

Frax Flow is the most intense: here everything is running all the time, constantly and relentlessly… better to stay plugged in when running Flow for prolonged periods.

Мета-анализ

Kanis JA, Johnell O, Johansson H, Oden A, Delmas P, Eisman J, et al.Prior clinical vertebral fractures are a particularly strong predictor of hip fracture: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 2006: 17 (suppl 3); 365

Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, Gluer C, Fujiwara S, McCloskey EV, Melton LJ III, Delmas PD (2005)A comparison of total hip BMD as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2005; 20 (suppl 1): S4.

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Johnell O, De Laet C, Melton LJ, Tenenhouse A, Reeve J, Silman AJ, Pols HAP, Eisman JA, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D. A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004: 19; 893-899.

Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, Johansson H, Oden A, Delmas P, Eisman J, Fujiwara S, Garnero P, Kroger H, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton III LJ, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk. Bone 2004; 35: 375-382.

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Johnell O, De Laet C, Eisman JA, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton III LJ, Pols HA, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Bone 2004; 35: 1029-1037.

Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA, Fujiwara S, Kroger H, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton LJ, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman AJ, Tenenhouse A. Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 2005; 16: 155-162.

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Eisman JA, Pols H, Tenenhouse A. Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporosis International 2005; 16: 737-742.

Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Delmas P, Eisman JA, Fujiwara S, Kroger H, Mellstrom D, Meunier PJ, Melton LJ III, OfNeill T, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2005; 20: 1185-1194.

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, De Laet C, Johnell O, Eisman JA, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. A meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk: low utility for case finding. Osteoporosis International 2005; 16: 799-804.

De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, Eisman JA, Kroger H, Fujiwara S, Garnero P, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton LJ III, Meunier PJ, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 2005; 16: 1330-1338.

Kayan K, Johansson H, Oden A, Vasireddy S, Pande K, Orgee J, Kanis JA, McCloskey EV (2009) Can fall risk be incorporated into fracture risk assessment algorithms: a pilot study of responsiveness to clodronate. Osteoporos Int 20: 2055-62

Являются ли тесты на остеопороз достаточным?

Остеопороз означает «пористая кость. «Кости становятся более хрупкими, обычно из-за гормональных изменений или пониженного уровня кальция или витамина D в организме. Потеря костной массы делает их слабее и, скорее всего, ломается, если вы падаете или иным образом ранены.

Первичный тест, используемый для диагностики остеопороза, — двойная рентгеновская абсорбциометрия (DEXA). Сканирование DEXA измеряет вашу минеральную плотность кости (BMD). Это безболезненный визуальный тест, который использует низкий уровень радиации. Во время теста вы лежите, и сканер проходит по вашему телу. Некоторые тесты измеряют BMD всего скелета. Другие типы сканирования DEXA проверяют несколько костей, таких как бедра, запястье и позвоночник.

Диагноз остеопороза не является гарантией того, что у вас будет перелом. Тест BMD может дать вам представление о том, насколько слабее ваши кости. Оценка FRAX может дать вам лучшее представление о вашем риске.

Анкета

Рекомендации и разработка рекомендаций

Grossman JM, Gordon R, Ranganath VK et al (2010) American College of Rheumatology 2010 recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 62: 1515-26

National Osteoporosis Foundation (2008) Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation. www.nof.org

Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AMet al (2010) 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary. CMAJ. Oct 12. e-pub ahead of print. PMID: 20940232

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey EV (2009) Bazedoxifene reduces vertebral and clinical fractures in postmenopausal women at high risk assessed with FRAX

Compston J, Cooper A, Cooper C, Francis R, Kanis JA, Marsh D, McCloskey EV, Reid DM, Selby P, Wilkins M; on behalf of the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men from the age of 50 years in the UK. Maturitas; 62:105-108.

Leslie WD, Lix LM, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey E, Kanis JA (2010) Manitoba bone density program. Independent clinical validation of a Canadian FRAX((R)) tool: Fracture prediction and model calibration. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 20499367

Compston J, Cooper A, Cooper C, Francis R, Kanis JA, Marsh D, McCloskey EV, Reid DM, Selby P and Wilkins P, on behalf of the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG).Guideline for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men from the age of 50 years in the UK NHS Evidence — National Library of Guidelines http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder/SearchResults.aspx?searchText=NOGG. Publication Date: 01 Oct 2008

Borgström F, Ström O, Coelho J, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey EV, Kanis JA. (2010) The cost-effectiveness of risedronate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis using the FRAX. Osteoporosis International 21: 495-505.

Johansson H, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O, McCloskey E (2009)BMD, clinical risk factors and their combination for hip fracture prevention. Osteoporos Int. 20: 1675-1682.

Ström O, Borgström F, Kleman M, McCloskey E, Odén A, Johansson H, Kanis JA (2010) FRAX and its applications in health economics — Cost-effectiveness and intervention thresholds using bazedoxifene in a Swedish setting as an example. Bone. 2010 47::430-7.

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey EV (2010) A meta-analysis of the efficacy of raloxifene on all clinical and vertebral fractures and its dependency on FRAX. Bone 47: 729–735

Kanis JA, Burlet N, Cooper C, Delmas PD, Reginster JY, Borgstrom F, Rizzoli R; on behalf of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) (2008) European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International. 19: 399-428.

High Resolution Rendering

See the section on .

The interactive renderer you see when you play with Frax is an approximation of the final fractal and doesn’t show the fine details with the same clarity as a high resolution cloud render. Because of this the two versions of the image can differ slightly.

It is a good idea to first try the medium resolution cloud render to make sure you are happy with the final result before trying the high or ultra resolution versions.

Your account will start with 5 free credits. To get more just scroll down on the high resolution render page and tap the button for the number of credits your want. Then follow the prompts to complete the in-app-purchase with Apple.

That sounds like you might have a special project applicable to Frax…
If so please contact us to discuss how we can help.

At the moment we don’t support rendering of animations from within the app.

An interim solution is to use something like Reflector, which allows you to stream your iPhone or iPad screen via AirPlay to a Mac or Windows desktop and record the result live.

Absolutely — you can use anything that comes out of Frax for your own purposes, no restrictions or copyrights on our part whatsoever. Make wallpaper for your screens, or run Frax Flow at a party, design your guitar body with cool textures or find weird next-gen tattoo shapes. You own it.

The same goes for the private images you create via the high resolution cloud render, personal or commercial use, it’s all yours!

The only restriction is for images that are shared by Pro users in Frax Cloud and gallery.
They are automatically covered by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License:

We are always interested in how people are using Frax, so do let us know 🙂

Obviously we also have a few extra tricks up our sleeves if you have an idea for a commercial project using Frax that you want to take that little bit further…

Frax Pro Upgrade

If you have the app handy, launch it then tap the Frax logo at the top and then the Why Upgrade to Pro? to watch the little teaser animation.
But since you are already on the website, you can just watch it here…

Still not convinced? Then take a look at the that are unlocked when you upgrade.

  1. Tap the screen to show the Frax interface
  2. Tap the logo and select Upgrade to FraxPro
    You will then see a screen showing the price of the Pro upgrade in-app-purchase (IAP) in your local currency.
  3. Tap this and follow the prompts for your Apple ID to complete the purchase.

Once successfully unlocked the Pro welcome page will popup. You can also

If you have other iPhone or iPod with Frax or another iPad with Frax HD installed then you can unlock Pro on those too without having to pay again. .

The Frax Pro IAP upgrade is stored against your Apple ID, so if you buy it on one device with Frax installed then you can install it on another that uses your same Apple ID without having to pay again.

Note: the Pro upgrade bought for Frax HD can not unlock Pro on Frax, and vice versa (as they are considered to be completely different apps by Apple)

To unlock Pro on another device:

  1. Tap the Frax logo, then the Upgrade to FraxPro button
  2. At the bottom of that screen there is a link to Restore a previously purchased upgrade…
    Tap that and follow the prompts to enter your Apple ID login to register and unlock the Pro upgrade.

You are fine. You probably played with the «Design» room in Pro (where you have tabs on all sides in a tree structure) and thought «oh so that is Pro». And next time you ran Frax, you woke up in the «Explore» room (with the four main buttons) and then figured «Oops, my Pro died?»

Simple answer is: Pro consists of a long list of many added functions and features, that includes the Design room, but also the Shape room — and: the «old» Explore and Flow rooms are also still there — but now with new enhancements!

In Explore you now have the hidden Edge Sliders — which are killer useful once you get the hang of it (many people work with those for 80% of the exploring and then tweak the final 20% in Design).

In Flow you find options in the upper left, such as using your own user presets as the source 🙂

One easy way to tell Pro: if you tap the logo, you whould get four rooms, Explore, Design, Shape and Flow. In the basic version if you tap the logo, there are only Explore and Flow.

A double tap on the logo switches instantly between Explore and Design — the quickest way to test.

Модели и способы применения, специфичные для отдельных стран

Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E. (2008) FRAXTM and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK. Osteoporosis International 19: 385-397.

Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Strom O, Borgstrom F, Oden A and the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (2008) Case finding for the management of osteoporosis with FRAX — Assessment and intervention thresholds for the UK. Osteoporos Int 19; 1395-1408.

Fujiwara S, Nakamura T, Orimo H, Hosoi T, Gorai I, Oden A, Johansson H, Kanis JA. (2008) Development and application of a Japanese model of the WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAXTM).Osteoporos Int. 19: 429-448.

Czerwinski E, Kanis JA, Trybulec B, Johansson H, Borowy P Osieleniec J (2009)The incidence and risk of hip fracture in Poland. Osteoporosis International 20; 1363-1368.

Tsang SWY, Kung AWC. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A (2009)Ten-year fracture probability in Hong Kong southern Chinese according to age and BMD femoral neck T-scores. Osteoporos Int. 20: 1939-1945.

Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Strom O, Borgstrom F, Oden A and the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (2009) Erratum to; Case finding for the management of osteoporosis with FRAX — Assessment and intervention thresholds for the UK. Osteoporos Int 19; 1395-1408. PMID: 18751937. Erratum published 2009 Osteoporos Int 20, 499-502

Lippuner K, Johansson H, Kanis JA, Rizzoli R (2010) FRAX assessment of osteoporotic fracture probability in Switzerland. Osteoporosis International 21: 381-390.

Neuprez A, Johansson H, Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Odén A, Bruyère O, Hiligsmann M, Devogelaer JP, Kaufman JM, Reginster JY (2009) Rationalisation du remboursement des médicaments de l’ostéoporose : de la mesure isolée de la densité osseuse à l’intégration des facteurs cliniques de risque fracturaire. Validation de l’algorithme FRAX. La Revue Médicale de Liège 64 : 12 : 612-619

Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Dawson-Hughes B, Melton LJ 3rd, McCloskey EV (2010) The effects of a FRAX((R)) revision for the USA. Osteoporosis International 21: 35-40.

Dawson-Hughes B, Looker AC, Tosteson ANA, Johansson H, Kanis JA, Melton III LJ (2010) The potential impact of new National Osteoporosis Foundation guidance on treatment patterns. Osteoporos International, 21: 41-52.

Berry SD, Kiel DP, Donaldson MG, Cummings SR, Kanis JA, Johansson H, Samelson EJ (2010) Application of the National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines to postmenopausal women and men: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis International. 21: 53-60.

Risk factors

For the clinical risk factors a yes or no response is asked for. If the field is left blank, then a «no» response is assumed. See also .The risk factors used are the following:

Age The model accepts ages between 40 and 90 years. If ages below or above are entered, the programme will compute probabilities at 40 and 90 year, respectively.
Sex Male or female. Enter as appropriate.
Weight This should be entered in kg.
Height This should be entered in cm.
Previous fracture A previous fracture denotes more accurately a previous fracture in adult life occurring spontaneously, or a fracture arising from trauma which, in a healthy individual, would not have resulted in a fracture. Enter yes or no (see also notes on risk factors).
Parent fractured hip This enquires for a history of hip fracture in the patient’s mother or father. Enter yes or no.
Current smoking Enter yes or no depending on whether the patient currently smokes tobacco (see also notes on risk factors).
Glucocorticoids Enter yes if the patient is currently exposed to oral glucocorticoids or has been exposed to oral glucocorticoids for more than 3 months at a dose of prednisolone of 5mg daily or more (or equivalent doses of other glucocorticoids) (see also notes on risk factors).
Rheumatoid arthritis Enter yes where the patient has a confirmed diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Otherwise enter no (see also notes on risk factors).
Secondary osteoporosis Enter yes if the patient has a disorder strongly associated with osteoporosis. These include type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, osteogenesis imperfecta in adults, untreated long-standing hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism or premature menopause (
Alcohol 3 or more units/day Enter yes if the patient takes 3 or more units of alcohol daily. A unit of alcohol varies slightly in different countries from 8-10g of alcohol. This is equivalent to a standard glass of beer (285ml), a single measure of spirits (30ml), a medium-sized glass of wine (120ml), or 1 measure of an aperitif (60ml) (see also notes on risk factors).
Bone mineral density (BMD) (BMD) Please select the make of DXA scanning equipment used and then enter the actual femoral neck BMD (in g/cm2). Alternatively, enter the T-score based on the NHANES III female reference data. In patients without a BMD test, the field should be left blank (see also notes on risk factors) (provided by Oregon Osteoporosis Center).

Факторы риска

Для клинических факторов риска необходимо ответить «да» или «нет». Если поле осталось незаполненным, подразумевается ответ «нет». См. также :

Возраст Модель работает с возрастом от 40 до 90 лет. Если вводятся меньшие или большие значения, программа рассчитает вероятность для 40 или 90 лет соответственно.
Пол Мужской или женский. Отметьте соответствующий.
Вес Должен быть введен в кг.
Рост Должен быть введен в см.
Предшествующий перелом Предшествующий перелом означает ранее имевший место перелом у взрослого, произошедший самопроизвольно или в результате такой травмы, от которой у здорового человека перелома бы не возникло. Ответьте «да» или «нет» (см. также примечания о факторах риска).
Перелом бедра у родителей Запрос анамнеза переломов бедра у отца или матери. Ответьте «да» или «нет».
Курение в настоящее время Ответьте «да» или «нет» в зависимости от того, является ли сейчас пациент курильщиком (см. также примечания о факторах риска).
Глюкокортикоиды Введите «да», если пациент принимает глкокортикоиды per os в настоящее время либо принимал пероральные глюкокортикоиды более 3 мес. в дозе 5 мг по преднизолону и больше (или эквивалентные дозы других глюкокортикоидов) (см. также описание факторов риска).
Ревматоидный артрит Ответьте «да», если у пациента есть подтвержденный диагноз «ревматоидный артрит». В противном случае ответьте «нет» (см. также примечания о факторах риска).
Вторичный остеопороз Введите «да», если пациент имеет заболевание с доказанной ассоциацией с остеопорозом. Это могут быть сахарный диабет I типа (инсулин-зависимый сахарный диабет), несовершенный остеогенез у взрослого, длительно нелеченный гипертиреоз, гипогонадизм или ранняя менопауза (
Алкоголь от 3 единиц и более в день Ответьте «да», если пациент употребляет в день 3 или более единицы алкоголя. Единица алкоголя незначительно варьируется в разных странах от 8 до 10 г алкоголя. Это соответствует стандартному бокалу пива (285 мл), одной стандартной порции крепкого спиртного (30 мл), бокалу вина средних размеров (120 мл) или одной порции аперитива (60 мл) (см. также примечания о факторах риска).
Минеральная плотность кости (МПК) (МПК) Выберите марку DXA денситометра, после чего введите МПК шейки бедра в г/см2. Как альтернатива, можно ввести цифру T-критерия, рассчитанного на основе референсной базы данных женщин NHANES III. Если МПК не исследовалась, поле надо оставить пустым (см. также описание факторов риска) (данные предоставлены Центром Остеопороза Орегоны).

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5 TetherUSDT 4 831 491 116 924 ₽ 73.38 ₽ 4 052 513 678 593 ₽ 65 841 476 181

0.08 %

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-0.1 %

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32 PancakeSwapCAKE 348 936 740 980 ₽ 1 883.78 ₽ 11 601 862 799 ₽ 185 231 813

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62 SafeMoonSAFEMOON 161 519 324 663 ₽ 0.000277 ₽ 277 068 237 ₽ 582 958 646 330 045

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70 ChilizCHZ 129 854 001 937 ₽ 27.15 ₽ 9 884 933 838 ₽ 4 782 431 150

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172 Alchemy PayACH 20 207 173 820 ₽ 8.05 ₽ 10 731 400 719 ₽ 2 510 092 907

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247 dKargoDKA 9 736 892 678 ₽ 12.16 ₽ 814 864 591 ₽ 800 598 533

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Personality

When still a human, Frax was once a kind-hearted doctor who is willing to save those who are in need, as he’s willing to save Ransik who was dying from Venomark’s poison. Unfortunately, instead of being grateful with his help, Ransik, who was already consumed with hatred toward humans too much, heavily wounded him and left him to die after laying waste his lab. The ungrateful actions are what angered Fericks and filled him with hatred, and that rage remained for a very long time.

As Frax, he is a cruel, wicked, treacherous, narcissistic, manipulative and pitiless robot and is ready to kill and betray for completing his goals, and always does it all with a psychotic laugh. In spite of his loyalty with Ransik (which was actually the ruse), Frax was resentful toward him for treating him like a vermin as much as robots in general. In fact, no matter what he and his creations did, Ransik won’t treat them with respect, as shown when the mutant destroyed some of his Cyclobots simply to release his stress. But Frax is not above being impatient, as he was cunning, calm, and manipulative, given that he is biding his time and prepared so he would gain the upper hand during his betrayal and kept his rage unnoticed by those around him up until he went rogue, and as a result, becoming insane, misanthropic, violent, sadistic, and showing no remorse for attacking humanity or the Power Rangers.

When Nadira apologizes for what her father had done to him, and even addresses him by his real name, a part of him that is still the kind Dr. Fericks resurfaces. Realizing that there is still hope for her, he decides to help her to turn over a new leaf. With the last vestiges of his spirit, as Dr Fericks and not Frax, he admits his errors and reminds Nadira that she does not need to hate and she can break the cycle of hatred between humans and mutants. His final words as Dr. Fericks is both a remorseful pleading and an encouragement to Nadira not to give up.

After Ransik had him lobotomized, Frax was reduced into a mindless drone who blindly obeyed Ransik’s commands without a question with no recollection of his past life and also became far more ruthless in his pursuit against the Rangers.

For USA use only

Consider FDA-approved medical therapies in postmenopausal women and men aged 50 years and older, based on the following:

  • A hip or vertebral (clinical or morphometric) fracture
  • T-score ≤ -2.5 at the femoral neck or spine after appropriate evaluation to exclude secondary causes
  • Low bone mass (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 at the femoral neck or spine) and a 10-year probability of a hip fracture ≥ 3% or a 10-year probability of a major osteoporosis-related fracture ≥ 20% based on the US-adapted WHO algorithm
  • Clinicians judgment and/or patient preferences may indicate treatment for people with 10-year fracture probabilities above or below these levels

Sharing Presets

Tap the Save & Share icon (top right corner) and select your sharing option.
Your preset parameters are saved in the Frax Cloud and a special link is created, which will load your preset into Frax on your friend’s device.

You can share your presets (and browse those from other Frax users) once you have unlocked the Pro upgrade.

More details are in the section about the .

Create something original, interesting or just aesthetically gorgeous and share it in the !
Every few days we will look through the latest uploads and pick the best for the featured gallery.

We are constantly surprised with the images Frax can produce, and we feel we have only scratched the surface so far!

For USA use only

Consider FDA-approved medical therapies in postmenopausal women and men aged 50 years and older, based on the following:

  • A hip or vertebral (clinical or morphometric) fracture
  • T-score ≤ -2.5 at the femoral neck or spine after appropriate evaluation to exclude secondary causes
  • Low bone mass (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 at the femoral neck or spine) and a 10-year probability of a hip fracture ≥ 3% or a 10-year probability of a major osteoporosis-related fracture ≥ 20% based on the US-adapted WHO algorithm
  • Clinicians judgment and/or patient preferences may indicate treatment for people with 10-year fracture probabilities above or below these levels

опросник FRAX

Вопросник FRAX включает в себя только 12 пунктов. Каждый из них, однако, представляет собой важный . К этим факторам относятся:

  • Возраст. Потеря массы увеличивается костей , как вы возраста.
  • Пол. Женщины на более высокий риск развития остеопороза и связанных с ним переломов, но мужчины также могут развиваться остеопороз.
  • Вес. Имея малый вес и быть хрупким повысить риск развития остеопороза.
  • Рост. Ваше отношение высоты к весу может помочь определить , насколько хрупкими вы или являетесь ли вы слишком избыточным весом.
  • Предыдущий перелом. Ваша оценка FRAX будет выше , если у вас был перелом , который произошел спонтанно. Он также будет выше , если вы сломали кости , вызванную травмой , что как правило , не вызывает перелом у здорового человека.
  • Родитель переломом бедра. Если ваша мать или отец был перелом бедра, риск подобной травмы выше.
  • Текущее курение. Курение является контролируемым фактором риска развития остеопороза и слабых костей.
  • Глюкокортикоиды. Эти используются для лечения аллергии, аутоиммунные состояния, а также другие проблемы со здоровьем. К сожалению, они также могут влиять на формирование новой костной ткани и с поглощением кальция.
  • Ревматоидный артрит. Это связано с повышенным риском развития остеопороза.
  • Вторичный остеопороз. Это включает в себя условие , связанное с остеопорозом, такие как диабет типа 1, гипертиреоз, хронические заболевания печени, (до 45 лет), а также несколько других условий.
  • Три или более алкогольных напитков в день. Они включают в себя пиво, вино и спиртные напитки. Чрезмерное употребление алкоголя повышает риск развития остеопороза.
  • Минеральная плотность костной ткани (МПКТ). В анкете вы должны выбрать , какой тип сканирования плотности костной ткани у вас были , а затем заполнить ваш счет.

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